Mongolia, or State of Mongolia is a landlocked country located in East Asia with its population of 3.3 million. Half of its population live in the capital city called Ulaanbaatar. It is bordered by Russia to North and China to south. It covers an area of 1.5 million square kilometers. Mongolia is a sovereign nation that is ruled by democratically elected parliament and government appointed by its parliament.
Territory of modern day Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires including Hunnu, Xianbei, the Rouran, the first Turkic Khaganate and others. In 1206 Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire which became the Largest contiguous land empire in human history. His Grandson Kublai Khan China to establish Yuan Dynasty. After the collapse of Yuan Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their early pattern of factional conflict, except the during the era of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan. In the 16th Century, Tibetan Buddhism spread to Mongolia being further led by Manchu founded Qing dynasty which absorbed the country in 17th century until the beginning of 20th century. After the collapse of Qing dynasty in 1911 Mongolia became independent country once again and achieved actual independence in 1921 from China. Shortly after this actual independence Mongolia became a satellite state of Soviet Union. In 1924 Mongolia became a Socialist state. Later in 1989 after a peaceful revolution Mongolia became a democratic country again and transitioned to market economy. Approximately 30% of its population is nomadic or semi nomadic and horse culture remained integral.
Buddhism is the religion to majority of its population , Islam is the 2nd largest religion concentrated among its Kazakh ethnic group. Most citizens are Ethnic Mongols , about 5% of Mongolian population are Kazakhs and most of them are living in most western Province of Mongolia called Bayan Ulgii province .
Mongolia has about 80 million animals including camels, horses, cows ( yaks) sheep and goats.
Mongolia has four seasons, summer is between June and August, autumn is between September and November, Winter is between December and February and spring is from March to June. However sometime winter lasts little bit longer that means spring is shorter and summer is shorter too. Some years, there are more snow whereas sometimes there are less snow. Same for raining. Mongolia is dependent on rain, whenever there are not enough rain in summer the following winter is so harsh that nomads lose majority of their livestock. After 1990 peaceful revolution in Mongolia when it switched to free market economy important part of Mongolian nomadic tribe has started to migrate to large cities such as Ulaanbaatar, Darkhan and Erdenet, selling their livestock or losing their livestock during harsh winters. Some of them become successful but mostly living in poverty. Most of them are living in ger districts surrounding the big cities in Mongolia. Today this has changed with the development of hi tech and infrastructure, almost all nomads have telephone and internet access even at their nomadic places, most of them have vehicles and TV that significantly stopped this migration from villages to the big cities.